§ 20-107.1. Court may decree as to maintenance and support of spouses.
A. Pursuant to any proceeding arising under subsection L of § 16.1-241 or upon the entry of a decree providing (i) for the dissolution of a marriage, (ii) for a divorce, whether from the bond of matrimony or from bed and board, (iii) that neither party is entitled to a divorce, or (iv) for separate maintenance, the court may make such further decree as it shall deem expedient concerning the maintenance and support of the spouses, notwithstanding a party’s failure to prove his grounds for divorce, provided that a claim for support has been properly pled by the party seeking support. However, the court shall have no authority to decree maintenance and support payable by the estate of a deceased spouse.
B. Any maintenance and support shall be subject to the provisions of § 20-109, and no permanent maintenance and support shall be awarded from a spouse if there exists in such spouse’s favor a ground of divorce under the provisions of subdivision (1) of § 20-91. However, the court may make such an award notwithstanding the existence of such ground if the court determines from clear and convincing evidence, that a denial of support and maintenance would constitute a manifest injustice, based upon the respective degrees of fault during the marriage and the relative economic circumstances of the parties.
C. The court, in its discretion, may decree that maintenance and support of a spouse be made in periodic payments for a defined duration, or in periodic payments for an undefined duration, or in a lump sum award, or in any combination thereof.
D. In addition to or in lieu of an award pursuant to subsection C, the court may reserve the right of a party to receive support in the future. In any case in which the right to support is so reserved, there shall be a rebuttable presumption that the reservation will continue for a period equal to 50 percent of the length of time between the date of the marriage and the date of separation. Once granted, the duration of such a reservation shall not be subject to modification. Unless otherwise provided by stipulation or contract executed on or after July 1, 2020, or unless otherwise ordered by the court on or after July 1, 2020, a party seeking to exercise his right to support so reserved shall be required to prove a material change of circumstances as a prerequisite for the court to consider exercise of such reservation.
E. The court, in determining whether to award support and maintenance for a spouse, shall consider the circumstances and factors which contributed to the dissolution of the marriage, specifically including adultery and any other ground for divorce under the provisions of subdivision (3) or (6) of § 20-91 or § 20-95. In determining the nature, amount and duration of an award pursuant to this section, the court shall consider the following:
1. The obligations, needs and financial resources of the parties, including but not limited to income from all pension, profit sharing or retirement plans, of whatever nature;
2. The standard of living established during the marriage;
3. The duration of the marriage;
4. The age and physical and mental condition of the parties and any special circumstances of the family;
5. The extent to which the age, physical or mental condition or special circumstances of any child of the parties would make it appropriate that a party not seek employment outside of the home;
6. The contributions, monetary and nonmonetary, of each party to the well-being of the family;
7. The property interests of the parties, both real and personal, tangible and intangible;
8. The provisions made with regard to the marital property under § 20-107.3;
9. The earning capacity, including the skills, education and training of the parties and the present employment opportunities for persons possessing such earning capacity;
10. The opportunity for, ability of, and the time and costs involved for a party to acquire the appropriate education, training and employment to obtain the skills needed to enhance his or her earning ability;
11. The decisions regarding employment, career, economics, education and parenting arrangements made by the parties during the marriage and their effect on present and future earning potential, including the length of time one or both of the parties have been absent from the job market;
12. The extent to which either party has contributed to the attainment of education, training, career position or profession of the other party; and
13. Such other factors, including the tax consequences to each party and the circumstances and factors that contributed to the dissolution, specifically including any ground for divorce, as are necessary to consider the equities between the parties.
F. In contested cases in the circuit courts, any order granting, reserving or denying a request for spousal support shall be accompanied by written findings and conclusions of the court identifying the factors in subsection E which support the court’s order. Any order granting or reserving any request for spousal support shall state whether the retirement of either party was contemplated by the court and specifically considered by the court in making its award, and, if so, the order shall state the facts the court contemplated and specifically considered as to the retirement of the party. If the court awards periodic support for a defined duration, such findings shall identify the basis for the nature, amount and duration of the award and, if appropriate, a specification of the events and circumstances reasonably contemplated by the court which support the award.
G. For purposes of this section and § 20-109, “date of separation” means the earliest date at which the parties are physically separated and at least one party intends such separation to be permanent provided the separation is continuous thereafter and “defined duration” means a period of time (i) with a specific beginning and ending date or (ii) specified in relation to the occurrence or cessation of an event or condition other than death or termination pursuant to § 20-110.
H. Where there are no minor children whom the parties have a mutual duty to support, an order directing the payment of spousal support, including those orders confirming separation agreements, entered on or after October 1, 1985, whether they are original orders or modifications of existing orders, shall contain the following:
1. If known, the name, date of birth and social security number of each party and, unless otherwise ordered, each party’s residential and, if different, mailing address, residential and employer telephone number, and number appearing on a driver’s license or other document issued under Chapter 3 (§ 46.2-300 et seq.) of Title 46.2 or the comparable law of another jurisdiction, and the name and address of each party’s employer; however, when a protective order has been issued or the court otherwise finds reason to believe that a party is at risk of physical or emotional harm from the other party, information other than the name of the party at risk shall not be included in the order;
2. The amount of periodic spousal support expressed in fixed sums, together with the payment interval, the date payments are due, and the date the first payment is due;
3. A statement as to whether there is an order for health care coverage for a party;
4. If support arrearages exist, (i) to whom an arrearage is owed and the amount of the arrearage, (ii) the period of time for which such arrearage is calculated, and (iii) a direction that all payments are to be credited to current spousal support obligations first, with any payment in excess of the current obligation applied to arrearages;
5. If spousal support payments are ordered to be paid directly to the obligee, and unless the court for good cause shown orders otherwise, the parties shall give each other and the court at least 30 days’ written notice, in advance, of any change of address and any change of telephone number within 30 days after the change; and
6. Notice that in determination of a spousal support obligation, the support obligation as it becomes due and unpaid creates a judgment by operation of law. (1982, c. 309; 1984, c. 456; 1988, c. 620; 1994, c. 518; 1998, c. 604; 2003, c. 625; 2016, cc. 477, 615; 2018, c. 583; 2020, c. 196, 1227, 1246.)
§ 20-107.1:1. Court may decree as to maintenance of life insurance policy.
A. Upon entry of a decree providing for (i) the dissolution of a marriage, (ii) a divorce, whether from the bond of matrimony or from bed and board, or (iii) separate maintenance, where an order for spousal support or separate maintenance has been entered by the court, the court may order a party to (a) maintain any existing life insurance policy on the insured party’s life that was purchased during the marriage, is issued through the insured’s employment, or is within effective control of the insured, provided that the party so ordered has the right to designate a beneficiary and that the payee has been designated as a beneficiary of such policy during the marriage and the payee is a party with an insurable interest pursuant to subsection B of § 38.2-301; (b) designate the other party as beneficiary of all or a portion of the death benefit of such life insurance for so long as the insured party so ordered has an obligation to pay spousal support to the other party, provided that the party so ordered has the right to designate a beneficiary and that the payee has been designated as a beneficiary of such policy during the marriage and the payee is a party with an insurable interest pursuant to subsection B of § 38.2-301 in accordance with the terms of the policy; (c) allocate the premium cost of such life insurance between the parties, provided that all premiums shall be billed to the policyholder; and (d) order the insured party to execute all appropriate forms or written consents to require the insurer to provide information to the party beneficiary as to the good standing of the policy and the maintenance of that party as beneficiary to the extent required by the order entered pursuant to this section. Any obligation or requirement under such an order shall cease upon the termination of the party’s obligation to pay spousal support or separate maintenance.
B. In making a determination under subsection A, the court shall consider:
1. The age, health, and insurability of the insured party;
2. The age and health of the payee spouse;
3. The cost of the life insurance policy;
4. The amount and term of the award of spousal support or separate maintenance;
5. The prevailing insurance rates at the time of the order;
6. The ability of either spouse to pay the premium cost of the life insurance; and
7. Such other factors as the court deems necessary or appropriate to consider in order to arrive at a fair order.
C. Upon motion of either party, any order entered pursuant to this section may be modified upon a material change of circumstances, including a change in marital status of the payor spouse, and in consideration of the factors set forth in subsection B. This provision shall not permit the change in marital status of the payor spouse to be considered as a factor under § 20-107.1 or considered a material change in circumstances in any proceeding related to the modification of spousal support.
D. Nothing in this section shall be construed to create an independent cause of action on the part of any beneficiary against the insurer or to require an insurer to provide information relating to such policy to any person other than the policyholder without the written consent of the policyholder or unless ordered by the court.
E. Nothing in this section shall be construed to require an insurance company to renew or reinstate any insurance policy other than as provided in such insurance policy.
F. In the event a group policy issued by an employer that is subject to a court order pursuant to this section is terminated or canceled by the employer or there is an involuntary change in employment by the payor causing the policy to no longer be in effect, such circumstances shall not be the basis of any finding of contempt against the payor arising out of an order entered pursuant to this section.
G. This section shall not apply to any second to die insurance policies on the lives of the payor and payee.
H. In the case of a term life insurance policy that has the ability to convert to a permanent policy, the court shall not impose an obligation to pay for such a conversion. (2017, c. 797.)
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